ERP Chọn lựa giải pháp ERP như thế nào

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Selecting a new ERP system can be time-consuming and risky — but with the right strategy and tools, you can turn your selection into a positive change. Here are some steps to help you identify the best solution for your company.
1. Choose an ERP selection project manager

The first step to selecting an ERP system is to select a project manager to manage the selection process. In addition to coordinating the internal needs assessment and vendor evaluation process, the selection project manager will serve as the liaison with vendors. The project manager will also create a selection team representing every area of the company (finance, sales, manufacturing, human resources, etc.).

If your company decides to hire an ERP consulting firm to manage the selection project, the role of the in-house project manager will shift toward overseeing the firm's work, co-ordinating interviews and meetings with key users and managers, and ensuring that each department's needs are adequately addressed.

2. Assess users' needs

When replacing an old system, it is important to identify features and functions that are desired in the prospective new ERP system that will increase productivity and provide quick and meaningful access to data. It can be very difficult and time consuming to identify desired new functionality without help from a tool that includes a database of possible features.

The ON-LINE CONSULTANT for ERP Systems is a leading software tool that provides the framework to select the most desirable system features. The pre-loaded question set can be modified with additions or deletions specific to your organization.

Surveys for the ON-LINE CONSULTANT for ERP Systems include: Inventory, Bill of Material, Material Requirements Planning, Master Production Scheduling, Forecasting, Shop Floor Control, Purchasing and Receiving, Customer Order Processing, Customer Service, Project Management, Budgeting, Royalty Tracking, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Payroll, Human Resources, General Ledger, and Fixed Assets.

A key advantage of the software is that each requirement can be weighted based on its importance to your company. Each survey or area can also be weighted relative to their priority. For instance, if finance is more important to your company's profitability than order processing or human resources, questions within the finance survey can be weighted more heavily. This would help you tag vendors with strong financial modules.

3. Develop a customized RFP for your organization

Based on the specific features and priorities assigned by the selection team, you will be able to create a Request for Proposal (RFP). Companies that use the ON-LINE CONSULTANT will benefit by having a customized RFP created automatically, ready for quick electronic delivery to vendors.

4. Distribute your RFP to the software vendors

The ON-LINE CONSULTANT will automatically create an electronic RFP formatted for automated response. This customized RFP can be emailed to the vendors of your choice (you can even include your current vendor for comparative purposes, if you wish). When returned, the vendors’ responses will be uploaded into the ON-LINE CONSULTANT database, ready to be evaluated. To help identify potential vendors, see the Enterprise IT Yellow Pages, a helpful resource guide that categorizes vendors by application and industry.

5. Rank vendor responses

Once all vendor responses have been uploaded into the ON-LINE CONSULTANT, the selection project manager can run numerous analytical reports that will rank the vendors and provide standardized cost comparisons. Since the automated tool requires no data entry, evaluation reports can be produced and analyzed the same day vendor responses are returned.

6. Plan vendor demos

After vendors are narrowed down to a short list based on their responses to the RFP, you can schedule an on-site demo with the top scoring two or three vendors. Unless you have some input into the vendor demo format, you could become dazzled and confused by the vendors' demonstrations. To help gain control of the process, see How to Make the Most of Vendor Demos.

7. Schedule site visits

Aside from demos, it is a good idea to visit the sites of non-competitive companies who are using the prospective ERP system. Site visits allow you to see systems implemented in a real world environment with live data and actual users vs. the vendor's marketing staff. Members of your selection team will have the opportunity to speak frankly with their counterparts and gain insights into the benefits and drawbacks of each system. For site visit planning and evaluation strategies, see How to Plan the Perfect Site Visit.

8. Consider other factors

Your final decision on which ERP company to select will be based on many factors besides functionality. Financial stability, reputation within the industry, and ability to keep up with new technology are among other considerations. Many of these questions can be answered in the RFP and then corroborated by your own research using business publications, trade journals, seminars and communication with others in your industry.


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Bài này đã từng post tại topic ERP là gì nhưng vì nó cùng chủ đề với topic này nên tôi copy lại vào đây cho nó tập chung.

Software Evaluation

Evaluating manufacturing software can be a very overwhelming task for small and mid-sized manufacturers due to the sheer quantity of products to choose from and the complexity of each system. Manufacturers typically manage their evaluation process either in-house or through contracted software consultants and evaluation services.
In-House Evaluation
Some companies prefer to manage the software evaluation process themselves. They typically develop a long list of potential candidates through multiple sources that may include word of mouth references from companies in their industry, Internet searches, online software directories and product reviews, business and trade magazines, manufacturing and software trade shows, and other sources. Companies that conduct their own software evaluations should dedicate an employee to the project of collecting and organizing information for the evaluation team.
Software Consultant
Some manufacturers contract software consultants to manage the evaluation process. As with any industry, there are good consultants and poor consultants.
Manufacturers should consider consultants with several years of experience and those who are not biased toward a product that their company represents. Many accounting firms and manufacturing extension partnerships also provide software consulting and evaluation services. In addition, there are a handful of credible, unbiased sources that provide detailed product reports and software evaluation services.

“We previously used a home-made system to track returned merchandise, but it was inefficient. Our new RMA module records whether the order requires credit or replacement and automatically initiates the correct action. We’re anticipating a big time savings as we use the system to process customer returns.”
Veo, Inc.
Digital Imaging Products Manufacturer
Evaluation Process
Manufacturers should form an internal software evaluation team comprised of representatives from different departments. A typical evaluation team will include employees from various departments within your business.
An employee should be designated as the project leader. The project leader should be responsible for managing the evaluation process. He or she will likely do a lot of the up-front work to build the initial list of software products and will work with contracted consultants or evaluation services throughout the evaluation cycle. Project leaders will also schedule team meetings and software demonstrations.
The evaluation process typically includes five phases—research, evaluation, selection, and implementation.

Needs Analysis
• Establish an internal evaluation team with representatives from various
departments within your company
• Hire consultant or contract evaluation service
• Develop needs analysis outlining requirements for a new system
• Establish metrics using current system for future ROI calculations
• Read trade and business magazines
• Attend manufacturing and software trade shows
• Use software directories and product reviews
• Use search engines to find related information
• Ask other companies in your industry what they’re using
• Contracted consultant or evaluation service will also provide in-depth research
• Use the needs analysis to develop a request for proposal (RFP)
• Send the RFP to vendors identified during the research phase
• The evaluation team should use research and RFP information to create a list of 5-10 potential solutions
• Schedule overview demos of each product. Overview demos will typically take 1-2 hours
• The evaluation team should meet after the overview demos to pick 3-5 vendors for a more detailed product demonstration. Detailed demos generally last 4-8 hours.
• Post-demo team meeting(s) and product selection
• Contact the vendor or reseller, negotiate pricing, define implementation plan
• Coordinate information transfer from evaluation team to implementation team
• Define implementation roles and responsibilities
• Establish implementation timeline
• Conference room pilot before going live
• Run new system parallel to existing business system for 1-4 weeks
• Implementation team meetings should continue to meet every month for the first 1-2 years after implementation to monitor progress, discuss ways to optimize the new system, and measure ROI achieved through improved processes (compared to the former system)

RFP Components
As mentioned earlier, a request for proposal (RFP) can help manufacturers collect and analyze information about each software product and vendor that they are considering. Sample RFPs are readily available on the Internet. Most software consultants and evaluation services can also provide needs analysis and RFP templates. In general, most RFP templates include the following sections.

Vendor / Software Profile
• General company information including address, Web site, revenues, stock profile (if publicly traded), years in business, customer base, key executives, and sales contacts.
• Company stability and viability analysis. The market for manufacturing software is currently undergoing considerable consolidation. Like most maturing industries, only a handful of leading vendors will emerge when consolidation is complete. It is imperative that manufacturers consider vendor size and presence in their industry when selecting a new business application as smaller vendors will be at a considerable disadvantage and could be acquired by larger vendors who may discontinue their solutions.
• Software profile including technology platforms supported (such as databases, operating systems, and hardware), manufacturing styles or methodologies supported, customer profile, product version, release descriptions, and more.
System-Wide Features
• General system-wide features including report writer, business intelligence capabilities, e-mail and fax integration, data alerts, security capabilities, decimal precision, critical field lengths (such as GL account, customer ID, vendor ID, item ID, etc.), online help and support for multiple companies, multiple sites, and multiple currencies.
• Customization and integration capabilities including data import/export utilities, integration and customization tools, and links to attached files or documents.

Accounting / Purchasing
• Fundamental financial features including general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable and bank reconciliation functionality.
• Advanced financial features for larger companies including budgeting, national accounts, allocations, consolidations, debt collection, fixed asset accounting or depreciation, and multicurrency.
• Online transaction tools including credit card processing, credit checking, automated clearing house (ACH), and electronic funds transfer (EFT).
• Manufacturing cost accounting including FIFO, LIFO, actual (lot costing), average, standard, and warehouse costing (for maintaining cost by location). Also, the ability to track specific costs to the General Ledger for overhead, fixed setup, fixed run, variable setup, variable run, direct labor, material, outside process and support for machine cost/rates, ABC costing, and landed costs.
• Purchasing capabilities including requisitions, blanket orders, release schedules, and vendor request for quote (RFQ) tracking.
Customer Service / Order Entry / Pricing
• Multiple order entry methods including customer service order entry, point-ofsale cash register integration, electronic data interchange (EDI), and Web storefronts for B2B or B2C orders.
• Flexible pricing including effective dates, contract pricing, customer pricing, promotions, volume or dollar-based pricing, discounting, and commission calculations.
• Online capabilities including product support knowledge base, customer self-service (account status/maintenance and shipment tracking), online catalog management, and more.
• Additional features for product configuration and/or guided sales, returned materials authorization (RMA), rebates, warranties, available-to-promise or capable-to-promise utilities, field service, item/lot reservations, blanket orders, and support for customer release schedules.
Inventory / Warehouse Management
• Inventory and item features such as lot/seri*al tracking, bin locations, consigned inventory, basic and advanced picking (for example, zone, wave, FIFO picking), item attributes, UOM conversions, product grouping by buyer or purchased product line, physical inventory calculations, and more.
• Shipping capabilities such as shipping and handling charge calculations, shipment tracking, bill of lading creation, and creation of SARA reports or MSDS documents.
• Receiving features including assisted put-away rules, cascade receiving, quarantined inventory, and vendor analysis.
• Advanced warehouse tools including bar coding, radio frequency handheld integration, RFID support, three-step inventory transfers, container tracking, pallet building, route management, and more.

Sales / Marketing
• Sales force automation including contact management, opportunity tracking, territory definition, sales team management, sales forecasting, estimating, quoting, proposal generation, remote access, and data synchronization.
• Marketing automation such as campaign tracking, literature fulfillment, budget and revenue management, telemarketing and sales scripts, and more.

• Discrete bill of material structure and routing definitions, CAD integration, outside processing (subcontracted operations), engineering change control, work order creation, material issues, labor entry, real-time shop floor control, and more.
• Batch process features such as recipe/formula definition, laboratory management and quality control, batch-sizing, cost analysis, nutritional labeling, compliance management, and more.
• Material planning capabilities including material requirements planning, sales forecasting, and inventory replenishment.
• Scheduling of resources including labor, tools, work centers, and machines in addition to preventative maintenance capabilities.

Human Resources & Payroll

• Employee management including time and attendance features such as time clock integration, time-off requests, attendance tracking, training and certification, recruitment, retirement, and benefits administration.
• Payroll processing including outsourced payroll services, direct deposit, deductions for union dues, piece-rate and crew incentives, overtime pay calculations, benefits deductions, and more.
• Benefits administration features for management of dental, vision, health, retirement, and other company-provided benefit plans including optional online benefits enrollment capabilities.
• Federal and state tax and reporting regulations including FMLA, COBRA, OSHA, HIPPA, ERISA, and more.

(Finished - RFP)


VNUNI Makes a difference
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Đây là 1 ví dụ về RFP để tìm hiểu 1 hệ thống ERP cho sản xuất.​

In addition to background, general and cost sections, surveys are included for the following functional areas: Inventory, Bill of Material, Master Production Scheduling, Material Requirements Planning (MRP), Shop Floor Control, Maintenance, Quality Control, Document Control, Forecasting, Purchasing and Receiving, Customer Order Processing, Customer Service, Budgeting, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Human Resources, Payroll, Project Management, Royalty Tracking, General Ledger, Fixed Assets.

Here are sample functional requirements for the ERP RFP template:
Maintain and convert purchase, stock and selling units of measure for inventory items.
Maintain item class (e.g. raw materials, finished goods, assembly, supplies, stores, tooling, etc.) in inventory master file.
Maintain multiple revision levels for same item in inventory master file.
Maintain phantom item source type (e.g. non-stock, non-controlled) in inventory master file.
Support machine variable overhead costing allowing assignment and tracking of variable overhead as measured by machine hours, cycles or other units.
Bill of Material
Support engineering view of bill of material for designing products.
Support phantom bill of material format for designing products and facilitate building bills with common groupings of components.
Display on-line inquiry that identifies parent items that will be affected by an engineering change to warn of potential problem orders or items.
Print costing reports showing actual or simulated cost buildup at current and standard costs flagging items with missing or incomplete costs.
Print routing reports showing uncosted or costed routings for an item at either current or standard costs.
Master Production Scheduling
Provide on-line, real-time master production scheduling functions incorporating current customer orders, forecasts, production orders, purchase orders and inventory changes.
Support multi-level master production schedules allowing any level in an item's BOM (e.g. end-item deliverable or lower-level such as spare part) to be master scheduled.
Provide on-line inquiry of item production plans, master production schedules and resource profiles by item number, planner or production family.
Provide rough-cut capacity testing of master production schedules with on-line review of available resources to check if capacity can meet master-schedule quantities.
Print projected inventory value report, based on MRP, that shows total inventory investment required at any time in planning horizon.
Calculate requirements for materials, components and sub-assemblies using bill of material, inventory data and master production schedule.
Support multi-level MRP to correlate with multi-level master production schedule (e.g. features and options, modularity).
Support bucketless storage of all pegging detail (e.g. MRP kept by date needed--not limited to weekly, monthly, periodic buckets).
Support multiple order policies including: least total cost (e.g. lot size in which carrying cost and ordering cost are equal).
Print cash flow analysis report projecting sales income and expenditures for material, labor and overhead, as well as net movement for a 12-month period.
Shop Floor Control
Maintain on-line work center definitions including plant, department, capacity and other attributes.
Support use of primary, alternate, reserve and rework job routings to schedule jobs and plan capacity requirements at work centers.
Provide ability to drill down via on-line inquiry into work center load by day and by job to see detail of underlying jobs.
Maintain history of actual methods, processes and parts used to build specific configurations on manufacturing orders.
Provide graphic displays of expected load at work station and compared to capacity at work station.
Provide ability to include maintenance and calibration tasks and activities (with expected start and finish times) in the production schedule.
The maintenance and calibration tasks must be planned and constrained by available capacity with production and other activities.
Maintenance planning must be constrained by the availability of maintenance parts.
Record labor and material consumption for maintenance and calibration with associated costs.
Provide ability to record history and statistics by line by machine by device for analysis.
Quality Control
Support on-line entry to record quality information (e.g. items accepted, reworked, rejected, returned) and support electronic routing process for required approvals.
Support problem resolution logging by part.
Provide QC SOP's and record sampling process.
Provide integration of all quality related data generated within multiple departments to be stored within one system.
Provide electronic time, date and inspector initial stamps for automated documentation within the system for the inspection process.
Document Control
Support security levels of access to documents based on a process / document model to restrict access based on processing conditions, customer requirements or regulatory procedures.
Track information for assessing recommended changes and tracking change requests, document revisions, document revision levels, dates and status codes.
Support electronic forms and workflow to document and track quality control processes (e.g. Defect Report from product inspection on plant floor) and eliminate paper forms.
Provide ability to identify all released material produced from using a specific component using forward traceability.
Support tracking of the identification, documentation and appropriate review and approval of all design changes and modifications.
Purchasing / Receiving
Support automatic vendor selection based on criteria such as preferred source, balanced among vendors, and lowest price or lead time.
Support Internet WWW hyperlinks to vendors' web sites for ordering through vendor sites, but still record orders within purchasing system.
Support flexibility in PO line item entry to specify different warehouses by item that will receive product.
Provide interface or data integration with Accounts Payable system to transfer item quantities received for matching with invoices.
Print cash flow requirements report showing time-phased value of outstanding purchase orders.
Support horizontal forecasting with equal amounts for each period.
Provide ability to override forecast based on planner judgement.
Provide ability to calculate standard deviation of the demand for an item over the lead time.
Calculate safety stock based on prior history of fluctuation from forecasts.
Print projection summary report showing aggregate projections over future years in units and standard cost for each product line, value class, or life cycle code.
Order Processing
Support pricing and discount categories based on combinations of parameters.
Support customer order processing through Internet (e.g. web site) with software accepting order into internal sales order system.
Provide available-to-promise inquiry projecting shipping dates based on scheduled receipts and work-in-process.
Provide flexibility to add ship-to addresses, credit terms, freight and tax codes, etc. during order entry without exiting order screens.
Provide option to automatically place orders on hold when order is over credit limit / terms.
Sales Analysis
Provide open orders reporting including accounts, dollar amount, items, status, etc.
Print forecast detail report showing forecast performance data and one-year forecasts in units for individual items.
Provide gross profit analysis with COGS at standard cost, actual costs, using multiple price lists.
Provide territory levels/groups with "roll-up" capability.
Provide product line P&Ls and cost of sales reporting.
Customer Relations
Support calendaring of sales calls, meetings, follow-up, etc.
Provide ability to centrally track all account management business interactions (e.g. calls, appointments, demos, proposals) from sales lead to order fulfillment.
Generate revenue forecasts based on pipeline information.
Report new customers sales cycle detail.
Include comprehensive method to segment customer and target customer databases based on product groups.
Customer Service
Support on-line tracking and reporting for customer service requirements including repair and service orders.
Provide a searchable FAQ database in which reps can type in key words and view typical or previously asked questions on topics with answers.
Provide productivity reporting of customer service metrics including time spent per call, # of calls per day, calls by type (e.g. return, order, product questions), etc.
Provide ability to manually override restrictions on shipment of replacement product until original unit received.
Provide ability to enter receiving destination for RMA products when RMA is generated. (e.g. receive to stock or receive to repair).
Call Management
Provide functions that automate collecting and managing information for support or service requests.
Support submission of service requests via "free form" e-mail and help desk software automatically retrieves the text, creates a new work order, assigns a number to it, etc.
Track work-order costs and support charge-backs to benefiting departments, organizations, etc.
Provide ability to create and track call tickets containing information including caller demographics, devices involved in the incident, previous case history and actions taken toward resolution.
Support automatic notification of overdue work orders or call tickets.
Accounts Receivable
Supports customer classes for sales history tracking or pricing purposes.
Calculate multi-level finance charges.
Calculate sales commissions from invoices.
Support entry and processing of customer deductions, recording reason and customer debit or credit memo number.
Provide option to print user-defined text on customer statements.
Accounts Payable
Support automatic assignment of vendor numbers.
Ability to handle multiple divisions as separate entities with divisional and corporate-wide reporting.
Track MTD and YTD total payments for current and prior year by vendor.
Print report of vendor invoices that exceed purchase order terms by user-defined criteria (e.g. price is 10% higher).
Print trend analysis report showing summary of activity for current month, last twelve months, and YTD by vendor.
Support and process multiple payrolls for different companies within multi-entity organizations.
Provide "self-service" ability for employees to access current pay period, MTD, and YTD payroll detail through web browser or centrally located kiosks.
Support prioritizing the order in which deductions are taken in event that an employee's pay is insufficient to cover all deductions.
Provide ability to calculate wages on multiple pay rates per employee in the same day and/or period.
Provide ability to perform regular payroll processing (e.g. print checks, reports) on two week, bi-monthly, or monthly cycles for different companies.
Print labor variance report by department of budget to actual productive and non-productive hours.
Human Resources
Maintain employee master file including demographics, positions held, assignments, licenses, education, work history, emergency contact, and other information.
Allow applicants to enter electronic job applications through a web browser, direct an application to job postings, and check the status of an application.
Maintain position control data for positions including job class, department, cost center, salary, position, number, name and status (e.g. proposed, authorized), etc.
Track COBRA eligibility for employees and produce standard notification letters
Track employee grievances/complaints and steps in the grievance process, effective dates, and comments associated with each grievance.
Fixed Assets
Support 12 or 13 period fiscal year.
Provide user-definable asset coding scheme by function, services, structure, cost center, or operational group.
Maintain cost of improvements to existing assets as component of asset value.
Print asset recap showing cost, salvage value, accumulated & current depreciation, and book value.
Maintain manufacturer data including ****** number and model number in asset master file.
Use account numbers from General Ledger system for budget preparation (e.g. no re-keying of account codes).
Provide ability to visually "drill down" to supporting detail in inquiry screens (e.g. mouse click will explode detail of higher level lines in an outline or tree format).
Support flexible budgeting of revenue, expense, and labor data based on user-defined volumes.
Print budget reports in same format as G/L reports, using G/L report format parameters.
Print monthly departmental exception reports of actual amounts that exceed a user-defined budget variance.
Project Management
Provide ability to maintain client account data including engagement information, employee in charge, billing responsibility and activity, account balances, etc.
Provide ability to maintain professional staff data including name, initials, position, seniority level, billing rates, billable and non-billable balances, etc.
Provide ability to generate client invoices upon completion of project phases or milestones.
Print current period, previous period, year-to-date, current period last year amounts on billing and productivity reports.
Provide data integration and interface with accounts payable system to produce employee expense reimbursement checks.
General Ledger
Process multiple general ledgers for multi-entity organizations.
Maintain, analyze and report general ledger data for twelve or thirteen month periods.
Retain budget, actual, statistical and dollar amounts for 24 months of historical data.
Compare current month and YTD to prior year's month and YTD (and variances) on revenue and expense reports.
Support uploading of data from standard microcomputer file formats to general ledger system.
Technical & Support
Provide complete turnkey on-site implementation and project management support.
Support the use of "drag-and-drop" with mouse as option to visually initiate system functions (e.g. drag a file icon to printer icon to start printing a report, etc.)
Support ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) protocols for data access.
Use RAID, disk mirroring, volume shadowing and/or other fault tolerant technology to increase reliability of disk storage and also minimize data loss due to hardware failure.
Provide future software releases and updates to all applications as part of regular software maintenance fees.
►More requirements are included in the actual RFP template.

These are just a few sample functional requirements from our ERP / Manufacturing RFP template. Items can be modified and weighted to reflect your unique priorities. You can also add your own requirements to create a custom RFP.


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How to select an ERP system

How to select an ERP system

Users must understand their business requirements and critical business processes. Not knowing their present business state of affairs and strategic direction will disqualify any future ERP system implementation from being a success. Understanding these issues should help users create a long list of vendors to include in an ERP package selection. Precedence should be given to vendors with a proven vertical focus on the user's industry.

The following high-level criteria, each containing up to several hundreds of lower-level criteria, must be concurrently evaluated during a selection process:

Product Functionality - evaluates the current features and functions supported by the product.

Product Technology - defines the technical architecture of the product, and the technological environment in which the product can run successfully. Sub-criteria include product architecture, software usability and administration, platform and database support, application standards support, communications and protocol support and integration capabilities.

Product Cost - examines the initial product acquisition cost as well as long-term costs, including maintenance fees, upgrade costs, training and implementation costs, and service & support fees.

Corporate Service and Support - defines the capability of the vendor to provide a high level of global implementation services and ongoing support.

Corporate Viability - examines the financial and management strength of the vendor.

Corporate Strategy - evaluates the corporate roadmap and strategy of the software vendor with specific timelines regarding how the product will be developed, sold, and supported within the specific market.

Most ERP selection teams appreciate the importance of product functionality, technology and cost criteria in making the decision. Too often, however, these are the only criteria that play a role in the decision-making process, which subsequently results in an unsuccessful implementation.

Users should put software through its paces during "scripted scenario" demonstrations (detailed sequences of real-life business processes), in order to further distinguish between the vendors who made the short list. Only after a short list has been defined should the cost criteria be reinserted into the decision; using relative cost differences between products provides negotiating leverage during the final selection phases.

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Phương pháp chọn giải pháp phù hợp

Mười bước cho việc lựa chọn đúng phần mềm Kế Toán/ERP
Lựa chọn sai một phần mềm kế toán có thể sẽ là thảm họa. Bạn có thể mất việc và việc ra quyết định kinh doanh có thể sẽ không được tốt – việc này đã nhiều lần xảy ra trước đây. Chính xác thì ta có thể tìm thông tin ở đâu để ra được quyết định chính xác? Có những hội thảo, bài báo nói về những phần mềm kế tóan, nhưng thường thì họ chỉ giới thiệu những khả năng mạnh, tốt của hệ thống. Các nhà cung cấp phần mềm cho bạn xem những tài liệu giới thiệu tuyệt vời về phần mềm của họ tại hội thảo, nhưng thật sự là hầu hết không hề nói về những điểm yếu, những điểm chưa đạt được của phần mềm. Những bài báo thường tô bóng về các sản phẩm để có được nhiều tiền từ việc quảngcáo.

Thường thì bạn sẽ mất một tháng sau khi cài đặt và chạy thử thì bạn mới biết khả năng đáp ứng của hệ thống so với nhu cầu của bạn. Giường như không có đủ sự trợ giúp để bạn không chọn nhầm phần mềm. Đây là một vấn đề mà mọi người phải đối mặt khi lựa chọn phần mềm kế toán. Đây là những bước quan trọng trong việc lựa chọn phần mềm kế toán:

Mười bước cho việc lựa chọn đúng phần mềm
1. Trở nên hiểu biết – Để bắt đầu, cách dể nhất là chúng ta nên tìm hiểu những phần mềm kế tóan - Chúng ta biết rằng không ai có đủ thời gian để làm việc này. Internet có thể giúp bạn tìm được thông tin nhanh hơn. Bạn nên tham dự các hội thảo, đọc báo…để hiểu biết hơn về tính năng các phần mềm và các nhà cung cấp.

2. Tạo một danh sách các giải pháp tiềm năng – Tao một danh sách tất cả các sản phẩm có thể đáp ứng nhu cầu của bạn. Bao gồm tất cả những sản phẩm mà bạn có kiến thức, hoặc bạn nghe đến, hoặc tìm được trên internet…. Nếu có thể nên hỏi đối thủ cạnh tranh của bạn là họ đang dùng giải pháp nào và thêm vào trong danh sách của bạn. Như vậy bạn có thể đánh giá sản phẩm ở nhiều mặt khác nhau, bạn có thể cân nhắc một danh sách kỹ lưỡng hơn – một danh sách excel liệt kê những thông tin chính của sản phẩm. VD, Bản excel của bạn có thể có cáoc thông tin như các phân hệ, giá cả, nền tảng, khả năng hiệu chỉnh, quản lí mã vạch…hoặc bất cứ cái gì bạn cho rằng nó quan trọng nhất đối với công ty bạn. Mục đích là chúng ta nhắm vào những yêu cầu quan trọng nhất và không bị che khuất bởi những yêu cầu chi tiết. Bảng liệt kê này sẽ giúp bạn gửi thông tin đến mọi người và giúp người quyết định sau cùng dể dàng lựa chọn sản phẩm.

Với mỗi sản phẩm bạn đang đánh giá, hay bắt đầu bằng một sanh sách những tính năng và những khả năng nổi bật đáp ứng tốt cho công ty bạn. Vd, bạn liệt kê những yêu tố chính cho yêu cầu từ công ty bạn nhưng khi xem demo từ nhà cung cấp bạn cho thấy có những tính năng tốt mà có thể mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho công ty bạn thì nên thêm tính năng đó vào.

3. Loại bỏ những lựa chọn không hợp – Để bắt đầu loại bỏ những sản phẩm có thể xem xét các khía cạnh như phân hệ, các yêu cầu chính… không phù hợp, hoặc đơn giản là quà đắt. Xem xét lần lược các tính năng và ghi chú là tại sao bạn lại đánh giá như thế. Lựa chọn đúng sản phẩm là cách tốt nhất để lọai trừ được những sản phẩm không phù hợp. Thông thường, bạn có thể loại bỏ một số sản phẩm ở giai đoạn này. Tiếp tục loại bỏ các sản phẩm thông qua quy trình ước lượng sản phẩm.

4. Đánh giá tính năng sản phẩm – Bước tiếp theo, tạo một danh sách các tính năng chuyên biệt và so sánh các tính năng này với các tính năng trong mỗi sản phẩm. Có nhiều phần mềm tốt có thể giúp bạn thực hiện bước này. Trong tập tin excel có hơn 4000 tính năng cho phép bạn so sánh. Bạn lọc những tính năng cần thiết mà công ty bạn cần làm tiêu chí đánh giá. Thông qua việc lựa chọn trên bản tính năng này bạn có thể lọai bỏ một số giải pháp không phù hợp. Bạn nên lựa chọn tính năng sản phẩm tương ứng với khả năng support của nhà cung cấp.

5. Duyệt Web – Bước tiếp theo, ghé thăm trang web của những sản phẩm/nhà cung cấp nằm trong danh sách của bạn. Nếu danh sách của bạn vẩn còn dài, bạn nên chọn lọc 4 hoặc 5 sản phẩm tại thời điểm này. In các thông tin, tập trung vào một danh sách, và dọc chi tiết sản phẩm. Dùng bút tô, tô đậm những điểm mà bạn nghĩ là sẽ giúp ích cho những người khác trong cơ quan của bạn xem xét chúng.

6. Yêu cầu tài liệu giới thiệu – Bước tiếp theo, gọi đến các nhà cung cấp và tài liệu về sản phẩm, khách hàng tham khảo…

7. Tìm những nhà cung cấp tốt nhất – Về lâu dài, các phàn nàn do phần mềm kế toán là do chọn nhà cung cấp không đủ khả năng. Bởi vì đây là việc quan trọng nhất quyết định sự thành bại của việc triển khai sản phẩm, bạn cần có những thông để chọn nhà cung cấp, tư vấn tốt nhất. Nếu bạn gọi đến nhà cung cấp và hỏi về đại lý thì nhà cung cấp sẽ chọn những đại lý còn ít khách hàng vì vậy vô tình bạn đã phải làm việc với những nhà triển khai ít kinh nghiệm. Đừng phạm lổi này. Bạn nên tham khảo thông tin từ những người ở công ty có kinh nghiệm làm việc với những phần mềm kế toán.

8. Demo giải pháp – Tại điểm này, hy vọng là bạn đã tìm được đại lý cung cấp dịch vụ tốt nhất cho những sản phẩm mà bạn đang cân nhắc. Tiếp theo, bạn nên sắp sếp để các đại lý đến demo sản phẩm cho bạn. Họ có thề sẽ demo sản phẩm trong khỏan từ 2 đến 4 giờ. Họ có thể sẽ hỏi bạn những câu hỏi về công ty bạn và những nhu cầu của bạn. Việc này giúp họ demo sản phẩm hướng của họ theo nhu cầu của bạn. (Nếu họ không bỏ thời gian ra để hỏi về nhu cấu của bạn, có thể bạn đang làm việc với người ít kinh nghiệm). Hy vọng là đại lý sẽ demo trên software nhưng đôi khi họ demo trên slide và có khi bạn phải tốn một ít chi phí cho việc demo sản phẩm. Có khi buổi demo sẽ diển biến như việc bán hàng, họ quản cáo nhiều về sản phẩm, nhưng trước khi buổi demo kết thúc bạn nên hỏi họ về những yêu cầu của mình. Phải chắc chắn là hỏi họ tại thời điểm thích hợp về phương pháp triển khai, phương pháp ghi nhận của họ và thực hiện sao cho hệ thống chạy đúng thời gian, và một danh sách 3 đến 5 khách hàng tham khảo để gọi hỏi thăm việc triển khai của họ. Bạn cũng có thể hỏi họ về bản demo để tự cài đặt và đánh giá.

9. Tham gia và việc kiểm thử – Nếu bạn nhận được mã nguồn từ nhà cung cấp, đây là thời để tốt để đánh giá nó. Nên nhớ là bạn đang test phần mềm mà bạn chưa biết cách dùng. Nếu bạn không thể làm cho vài tính năng chạy được theo cách mà bạn muốn nó làm việc, đừng giã định rằng nó không làm được. (Phần lớn những nhà sản xuất phần mềm nhận hàng ngàn đề nghị về việc thêm tính năng cho sản phẩm mà nó đã được cấp nhật và hiện đang ở trong hệ thống.) Đơn giản là ghi ra giấy và hỏi nhà cung cấp của bạn cách thức thực hiện. Phải thường xuyên cập nhật danh sách của bạn về những đánh giá các điểm tốt, xấu trong sản phẩm. Bao gồm tiêu chí chính về hiệu năng, giao diện, tính dể dùng, ….
10. Gọi cho những khách hàng trước để tham khảo – Tại thời điểm này, gọi cho những khách hàng đã được triển khai bởi nhà cung cấp này và hỏi những câu hỏi như sau::

a. Bạn đang dùng phần mềm XXXXX?
b. Bạn đã triển khai lúc nào?
c. Ai triển khai hảng hay đại lý?
d. Họ triển khai như thế nào? Hệ thống có đi vào sử dụng đúng thời gian không?
e. Bạn có hài lòng với sản phẩm này?
f. Những vấn đề vướng mắc hiện tại với sản phẩm?

Thường thì chỉ với 6 câu hỏi này thì bạn sẽ có những gì bạn cần, nếu như họ cung cấp những thông tin đối với nhà triển khai hay sản phẩm. Bạn phải cẩn thận và chắc chắn là những khách hàng tham khảo này là thật với bạn. Vài khách tham khảo sẽ không nói bất cứ điểm xấu nào về sản phẩm và sự triển khai vì sợ lien quan đến việc kiện tụng. Một số khác thì không thực sự là khách hàng tham khảo mà là người quen của nhà cung cấp/đại lý. Vì vậy, phải xem xét kỹ lưỡng những người cung cấp thông tin cho bạn mà không thể liệt kê chi tiết của việc triển khai hay sản phẩm. Nếu bạn liên lạc được 3 khách hàng tham khảo nói tốt về sản phẩm, nhà triển khai – và nên chắn chắn là sản phẩm đã vượt qua đợt kiểm tra sau cùng (final test). Nếu bạn nhận được những phản hồi chưa tốt thì cố gắng tìm hiểu xem là sản phẩm tốt và nhà triển khai kém hay tình huống ngược lại.

Thời điểm quyết định

Tại thời điểm này, bạn đã có được những thông tin tốt cho việc chọn phần mềm. Nếu bạn có nhiều hơn 1 giải pháp trong danh sách của bạn, thì nên ra quyết định dựa trên những điều cơ bản hay cảm giác của bạn. Nếu bạn vẫn khó quyết định, nên chọn sản phẩm mà việc thao tác hàng ngày dể dàng hay sản phẩm được xây dựng trên nền tảng công nghệ tốt hoặc sản phẩm có hệ thống báo cáo tốt. Không thì búng đồng tiền mà lựa chọn. Chúng tôi tin rằng giá của sản phẩm không có liên quan đến việc lựa chọn nhiều lắm. Giá thật sự nằm ở chi phí triển khai.

Tóm lại

Rõ ràng là nhà cung cấp phải mất một thời gian lâu đề hòan thành 10 bước trên. Và cách làm tốt nhất cho bạn là thực hiện xuyên suốt 10 bước để có thể chọn được sản phẩm an thích hợp. Vài công ty quyết định chọ sản phẩm chỉ trong 30 phút nói chuyện với chuyên viên tư vấn. Những công ty khác lại mất khoản 3 tháng để có được sự chọn lựa tốt nhất. Bạn nên có sự chuẩn bị kỹ lưỡng để chọn được phần mềm đáp ứng nhu cầu hiện tại và trong tương lai.

Ghi chú:
Trên đây là phần lược dịch từ tài liệu nước ngoài. Nếu có những gì chưa chuẩn mong mọi người góp ý nhé. :dance2:
Sửa lần cuối:


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7 steps to choosing the right ERP software

With so many ERP options in the marketplace today, selecting a package for your business can be an overwhelming task. While many companies feel that any software will work and their organizations will simply conform to the functionality of the software, widely-publicized ERP failures indicate that this isn’t the best solution. Further, since ERP should be a transformational business initiative providing key competitive advantages to your company, the decision shouldn’t be taken lightly or made with incomplete information.

So what’s the best way to find the ERP solution that’s going to be the best fit for your organization? Here are seven steps to help you choose the right software for your organization:

1. Conduct a process review and analysis. Since ERP is first and foremost a business initiative, you should first define and document your current business processes, pain points, and strengths. This analysis should also include what you think your processes should look like in the future (your “to-be” state) and the corresponding business requirements. These processes and requirements should eventually be used for potential software vendors to demonstrate their product’s capabilities within the context of your business needs.
2. Evaluate the technical fit. Although ERP should be a business rather than a technology initiative, it’s also important to understand how a potential software solution will align with your current infrastructure. For example, if you’re a Microsoft shop, you’re likely to find a better technical fit with ERP software products built on a .NET platform.
3. Understand the total cost of ownership. During the sales cycle, ERP software sales reps are interested in downplaying the costs and risks associated with purchasing their software. However, it’s a lot easier to accept potential costs early in the process rather than after you’re already committed to a particular solution. Be sure to uncover “hidden costs” associated with ERP, including implementation costs, hardware upgrades, backfilling your project team resources, software maintenance, etc.
4. Develop a realistic implementation plan. While you’re still in the sales cycle, you should take vendor implementation duration estimates with a grain of salt. It’s important to develop a comprehensive project plan that includes not just the activities required to install the software, but the ones that are required to ensure that the solution is fully functional, tested, and accepted by end-users. This plan should be developed prior to your final software decision so you fully understand the cost and resource commitments required to make the project a success. Your implementation project plan should include everything from business process and workflow design to data migration, conference room pilot, multiple test iterations, and key organizational change management activities.
5. Track the potential business benefits of the new system. If you don’t measure it, you likely won’t achieve it. ERP projects are no different. Chances are your organization is looking at ERP as a way to reduce costs, increase revenue, or scale for growth, and you should estimate and measure benefits against these metrics if you are going to realize the full potential of ERP.
6. Keep your options open. While this may sound more like dating advice, it’s also relevant to choosing an ERP package. Contrary to common belief, there are more than just two to three primary ERP software vendors. Although two to three software vendors constitute a majority of market share and marketing dollars, there are at least 70 viable ERP software solutions in the market, all with varying degrees of functionality and strengths. Too many companies choose a solution based on brand name or based on what competitors are doing. Instead, organizations need to consider the options that are going to best meet their unique business requirements and sources of competitive advantage.
7. Look for objective and independent advice. Ask colleagues, employees, and other contacts what they use or recommend for a company like yours. Conduct research on the internet or hire an ERP consultant if necessary. In any case, don’t assume you have all the answers if you don’t have experience with ERP. Find other sources of independent ERP advice to validate what you’re hearing from software sales reps.

By adhering to these seven steps, you and your organization will be much more likely to be one of the ERP success stories rather than one of the ERP nightmares we’ve all read about.

Eric Kimberling has over 15 years of experience in the ERP and CRM consulting industry, including software selection, project management, organizational change management, and benefits realization. Eric is President and Founder of Panorama Consulting Group, an independent ERP business consulting firm focused on ERP software selection, implementation, and organizational change management. He can be reached at or 303-256-6253.
Thích: erponline

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